In North Macedonia, all market participants focused on customer retention and up-selling activities throughout the year. The fixed-line provider Telekabel launched a mobile SIM-only proposition in Q1 2019. Wi-Fi routers, which were previously reported under fixed-line RGUs, have been reported in mobile postpaid starting with Q2 2019 due to a new product logic. In September 2019, the “A1” brand was also introduced in North Macedonia. Total revenue growth of 3.2 % was driven by higher mobile services revenues resulting from the positive development of mobile Wi-Fi routers. Lower administrative expenses were offset by higher cost of services as well as higher selling and marketing expenses, which were impacted by the rebranding. As higher service revenues outweighed higher total costs and expenses, EBITDA grew by 6.3 %. Together with stable depreciation and amortization, this led to operating profit growth of 19.7 %.